Computer Notes

RAM and ROM concept | RAM and ROM Difference

RAM and ROM are the Main Storage Devices in computer, both storage devices are working as the work area of the computer. These devices are essential for the computer without these both devices computer will not able to work. One of the volatile and second is non volatile which one is volatile and which one is not computer science today will teach you everything about RAM and ROM in this article.

Difference between RAM and ROM:

As we read above RAM and ROM are the components of Main storage devices of the computer and both are essential for the computer so here we are going to tell you difference between RAM and ROM

1. RAM (Random Access Memory):

RAM is the primary storage device and the data and it stored the data or instruction temporarily and It takes the same amount of time to access any location in RAM. CPU can perform two types of operations on RAM and these are Read and Write.

During Read operation the contents of memory location are copied to CPU register whereas during Write operation the contents of a CPU register are copied to the memory location. The CPU cannot perform any other operations on memory locations. RAM is usually built by using two different technologies i.e.

  • DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory): DRAM is the most commonly used technology to build RAM chips and consumes a lot of power as data stored in a DRAM needs to be refreshed periodically.
  • SRAM (Static Random Access Memory): SRAM is faster than DRAM but it is more expensive. Unlike DRAM, the contents of SRAM do not need to bed refreshed periodically.

Characteristics of RAM (Random Access Memory):

  • RAM is volatile memory it’s mean that the content of memory are lost when the electricity supply is shut down
  • Since CPU can read data from and write data to the RAM therefore RAM is read/write memory
  • RAM is random access in the sense that any part of RAM can be accessed directly.

2. ROM (Read Only Memory):

As is obvious from the name the contents of ROM can be read but new data cannot be written into it so it is a Read Only Memory. The manufacturer of the ROM writes the data and programs permanently into it and this data and programs cannot be changed afterwards ROM is used to save frequently used instructions and data. The data stored in ROM will not change for a very long time. There are three types of ROM i.e.

  • PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory): This form of ROM is initially blank and the user can write his own data/programs on It by using special devices. Once the program/data is written on PROM it cannot be changed or altered. it is obvious that this kind of ROM will be used for storing the data for a very long period of time. The data written on this kind of ROM cannot be changed once it is written
  • EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory): Like PROM it is initially blank and programs and data can be written on it by the manufacturer or by the user with special devices. Unlike PROM a user can erase the data by using special devices and UV rays and then can write again, but the data is changed only for one time.
  • EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory): This kind of ROM can be re-written by using electrical devices and so data stored on EEPROM can be easily modified. EEPROM can be very useful for taking backup of data and for keeping records that are updated frequently
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Storage Devices in Computer | Types of Storage Devices

Computers are used to process large volumes of data and to execute very complex programs. The computer needs to have some kind of storage device to hold these programs and data. Such as device should be directly accessible to the CPU and its speed must be compatible with the speed of the CPU. Also computer must be able to store frequently needed data on some permanent storage devices in computer.

Types of Storage Devices in Computer:

. Based on the characteristics of the storage devices we classify these devices as Main Memory and Secondary Memory storage devices. In this article we will describe both types of storage devices in computer briefly.

1. Main Storage Devices:

Digital computers are stored programs computers that mean a program to be executed is first loaded in the memory storage devices in computer and then instructions are executed one by one. The data and results of the calculations are also stored in the memory. In this sense main memory is the working area of the computer. It is very fast but limited in capacity. A computer cannot work without main memory. Most general purpose computer have enough memory to store a few million characters.

The main memory of a computer consists of thousands or even million of cells. Each cell capable of storing a bit that is 0’s and 1’s.These cells are logically organized into groups of 8 bits is called byte. Each byte has unique address assigned to it. This number is called the address of that byte. These scheme of arranging cells into a byte and bytes into memory chip.

2. Secondary Storage Devices:

Primary storage devices are directly accessible to processor and are used to store data and programs that are in current time. The control unit does not have direct access to data that is stored anywhere outside the processor or main memory. However this storage is limited in size and volatile. We need some storage devices that is not temporary in nature and that does not have the same restriction of size as that of main memory. Such a device is called secondary storage devices in computer. Secondary storage devices are categorized according to following:

  • Data stored optically and magnetically
  • Sequential and direct storage access technique used
  • The capacity of the devices according how much we want it
  • Easily portable and easily remove or change

Secondary storage is required permanently stone information that is not needed in memory all of the time and which may be too large to fit into the memory of the computer. Two main categories based n the ways of accessing data from a secondary storage are sequential Access and Direct Access or Serial Access and Random Access respectively.

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High Level Languages | All famous Programmings

High Level Languages are very similar to human being languages and far from the machine language. There are machine independent languages which are also known as “This generation” languages. These languages are based English like words, a few punctuation characters and basic mathematical symbols. These languages allow simple commands and statements to manipulate problem. Each High Level Language has its own language translator such as compiler or Interpreter. Some famous High Level Languages are explained below:

FORTRAN Programming:

FORTRAN stands for Formula Translation. In 1975 the first major High Level Languages appeared in the form of FORTRAN.FORTRAN stands for Formula Translation. FORTRAM was developed by the IBM for scientific computing. It was mainly used for specific purposes

BASIC High Level Language:

BASIC is the old High Level Language and it is stands for Beginners All purpose symbolic Instruction Code. BASIC was actually designed for the students to write programs for programming practicing using time sharing computer terminals. BASIC was intended for easy learning programming concepts. There are some principles of BASIC Programming are given below:

  • Too much easy for beginners to use.
  • Be a general purpose language.
  • BASIC Allows advanced features to be a expert programmer
  • Attractive language
  • Providing clear and friendly error messages
  • Respond fast for small programs.
  • Not require and understanding of computer software

COBOL Language:

COBOL stands for Common Business Oriented Languages. Through FORTRAN was good at handling numbers, it was not so good at handling input and output, which mattered most to business computing. COBOL was designed as the language for businessman. The only data types of COBOL are numbers and strings of text. A COBOL program consists of four or five major sections. COBOL statements also have a very English Like grammar also called syntax, that making this very easy to learn and understand. Because of its simplicity it had been very popular among business community.

LISP Programming:

LIST stands for List Processing Language. It was designed for Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Because it was designed for such as highly specialized field, its syntax was very different of ordinary languages. It has the unique ability to modify itself and hence grow on its own. It is being used even today because it is highly specialized.

PASCAL High Level Language:

PASCAL was designed to introduce some advance and best features and making flexible of the languages in use at the time, COBOL, FORTRAN and ALGOL. While doing so many of the irregularities of these languages were cleared up, this helped it to gain popularity. The newly introduced combination of features made it a reliable and highly successful Programming Language.

C and C++ Languages:

In 1972 C language was introduced by Dennis Ritchie while during working at Bell Labs. C is commonly used to program operating systems such as UNIX, windows and Macintosh OS etc. It is very useful for compiler writing. C+ was an extension to C language using OOP (Object Oriented Programming) concept, while maintaining the speed of C. C++ is the most often used in simulation, such as games. Now a days almost in every institute C or C++ language is compulsory subject.

Visual BASIC Language:

It was the first visual development tool from Microsoft, and it was designed to compete with C, C++, PASCAL and any other languages. When it came out Visual Basic wasn’t until Microsoft release VB 2.0 in 1993 that people really started to discover the power of the language, and when Microsoft released VB 3.0 it had become.

JAVA High Level Language:

One of the famous High Level Languages is JAVA. Sun Microsystems began developing a language with the primarily purpose to control microprocessors used in consumers items such as cable receivers, VCR’s toasters, and also for personal data assistants (PDA). JAVA often powerful capabilities of network programming, Internet applications and GUI (Graphical User Interface).

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High Level vs Low Level Programming Languages

Computer Languages are used to write computer programs. There are two board categories of programming languages i.e. Low level and high level languages. We will discuss briefly High Level vs Low Level Programming Languages in this article.

1. Low Level Languages:

Low level languages are divided into two broad languages i.e. machine and assembly language.

Machine Low Level Language:

 Machine Language is the native language of the computer. The computer does not need any translator to understand this language. Programs written in any other language must be converted to the machine language instruction consists of strings of binary 0’s and 1’s. As it is very difficult for human beings to remember long sequences, therefore writing programs in machine language are very difficult and error prone. So it was thought to replace the long sequences of 0’s and 1’s in machine language with English like words. The idea provided by the basis for the development of the assembly language.

Assembly Low Level Language:

In assembly language, machine language instructions (long sequences of 0’s and 1’s) are replaced with English like words are also known as mnemonics. As assembler translator is use for the assembly language to convert the program into machine language.

2. High Level Languages:

Programming Languages whose instructions resemble the English language are called high level languages. Every high level language defines a set of rules for writing programs called syntax of the language. Every instruction in the high level language must confirm to its syntax. If there is a syntax error in the program, it is reported by the language translator. The program does not translate into machine language unless the error is removed.

Some common high level languages are C, Java, C++, FORTRAN, BASIC, and COBOL etc. we will discuss these languages details in other article here is the link of that article. Although each of these languages were designed for specific purpose; all are used to write variety of application software. Some of these languages such as C and C++ are used to write system software as well. Each of these languages has some advantages and disadvantages over the other e.g. FORTRAN has very powerful mathematical capabilities while the COBOL is ideal for writing business applications, C and C++ are very handy for writing system software while Java is equipped with strong network programming features.

Characteristics of High level Languages:

  • There are English like languages, hence are close to human languages and far from the machine languages and very easy to learn
  • Programs written in high level languages are easy to modify and debug and more readable
  • These languages let the programmers concentrate on problem being solved rather than human-machine interaction.
  • These describe well defined way of writing programs
  • These do not require a deep of understanding of the machine architecture
  • High level languages provide machine independence. It means programs written in a high level languages can be executes on many different types of computer with a little modification. For Example programs written in C can be executed on Intel processor as well as on Motorola processors.
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OSI Model Layers | Open Systems Interconnection

The open system interconnection OSI Model Layers began a reference model, but has since been implemented. It was created by international organisation for standardization OSI to provide a logical framework for how data communication processes should interact across networks. Standards were created for the computer industry allowing different networks to work together efficiently.

How many OSI Model Layers are?

There are 7 layers in the OSI Model. Each layer is responsible for a particular aspect of data communication. For example, one layer is may be responsible for establishing connections between devices, while another layer maybe responsible for error checking during transfer.

The layers of the OSI Model are divided into two groups: the super layer and lower layer. The uper layer focus on user application and how files are represented on the computers prior to transport. For the most part, network engineers are more concerned with the lower layer. It’s the lower layers that concentrate on how the communication across a network actually occurs.

Application OSI Model layer:

one of the important OSI model layers is Application Layer. Provide network services to user applications. It is responsible for exchanging information between programs running on the machine, such as an e-mail program, and other services running on a network such as a print server or another computer’s application.

Presentation OSI Model Layer:

Concerned with how data converted and formatting for data transfer, Examples of format conversion include ASCII text for documents and .gif and JPG for images. This layer performs code conversion data translation, compression and encryption.

Session model layer:

Determines how two devices establish, maintain and manage a connection – how they talk to each other. These connections are called sessions.

Transport layer OSI Layer:

 Responsible for  breaking the data into segments establishing an end-to-end logical connection between Machines, and providing for error handling.

Network layer:

Responsible for determining on the network determining the routes that information will take on its journey, and managing network traffic congestion. Data and this level is packaged into packets.

Data link layer:

Provide the link for how data, packaged into frame is communicates through hardware to be transported across a medium. It communicates with network cards, manages physical layer communications between connecting systems and handles error notification.

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Database Management System | Objectives, Advantages, Features

Normally the DBMS is used for large or medium sized organizations, having heterogeneous types of files used for the different purposes. In this mechanism, the data elements are so integrated, cross referenced and shared among them that the duplication of data is almost possible.

Definition of Database Management System:

The Database Management System a collection of programs which is used for storing and manipulating database is called database management System (DBMS). It is an improvement over the traditional file management system. It uses DBMS software which controls the overall structure of a database and access to the data itself.

Objective of Database Management System

There are many objectives of the Database Management System some are mentioned below:

  • Share ability: Different people and different processes must be able to use the same actual data virtually the same line.
  • Availability: Both the data and DBMS which delivers the data must be easily accessible to the user.
  • Resolvability: The ability of the DBMS to change in response to growing user needs and advancing technology.
  • DATABASE Integrity: Since data is shared among multiple users, adequate integrity control measure must be maintained.

Advantages of Database Management System:

Advantages of DBMS are given below:

Data Independence:

Application programs are not aware of the physical implementation of the data sets. The DBMS sits in between the application programs and the actual data sets that make up the database

Support Complex Data Relationship:

Fairly complex data structures can be designed which allow various ways to logically view or access the data. This complexity greatly enhances the ability of a designer to put data where it belongs and provide a path to that data whenever needed.

Data Security Features:

DBMS provide enhance security mechanism for access to data. Database security mechanisms typically go much further in add more extensive security features. If granted Read access to a file or table, the user may see each record in the file, and every data field it contains. Access intent of each application program can be specified explicitly. An application program’s view of data records may be controlled to the field level.

Database Backup and Recovery:

DBMS provide sophisticated backup recovery mechanism. Backup and Recovery capabilities often distinguish between true DBMS and a software package that only claims this facility. A DBMS has a logging or recording mechanism that captures information on changes to data within a database. In case of database recovery, a utility within the DBMS rebuilds it by using a backup copy of the data and log of changes as input.

Advance Capabilities:

DBMS normally have advance access capability for online and ad-hic reporting capabilities. However, the ability to provide data independence to create complex data structures, to ptovide security to data access, and to provide backup and recovery capability are the primary requirements of a DataBase Managements.

Features of Database Management System

Data Dictionary:

Some database have a data dictionary, a procedures a document or disk file that stores the data definitions or a description of the structure of data used in the database. The data dictionary may monitor the data being entered to make sure it confirms to the data definition rules i.e. a file names, field names, field sizes, data types etc. It may be used for data access authorization for the database system.

Query Languages:

Normally SQL is used for creating table structures, entering data into them and retrieving/updating the selected records, based on the particular criteria and format indicated, within the databases. Typically, the query is in the form of sentence or English like commands such as SELECT, DELETE, INSERT and UPDATE commands.

Utilities in DBMS:

The DBMS utilities are the software programs that are used to maintain the database by manipulating the data, records and files. Some programs are also used for backup and recovery procedures of the database.

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Applications of Computer | Internet in society

There is numerous areas in which applications of computer has increased ease and efficiency of every work and computer have put a large impact. Many times the most important on our society is on information sharing.

Application of Computer and Impact of Internet on society

Computer plays very vital role in the society. Everywhere every time all over the world there are applications of computer as well as Internet is now the part of the world. Everybody in this world try to finding their solution on internet, Internet make the human’s life too much easy.

Here in this topic you will some computer applications and internet that are given below:


Educational institutes, from primary to university level, are using computer for various learning activities. A large number of learning programs (tutorials) are available on almost every subject. These provide a one-to-one interaction with the students. The conducting online examination is getting popular e.g. GRE, GMAT, SAT etc. are conducted online throughout the world. Questions are marked by the computer, which minimize the chance to committing mistakes. It also make it possible to announce result in Time.

Distance learning is a new methodology. Computer plays the magnificent role in this type of learning. Hundreds of institutes are offering to distance learning programs. The students are not required to come to the institute instead to they are provided reading material and attend classes Via virtual classroom. In a virtual classroom, teacher deliver the lecture at it own workplace While the students, connected to a network, may listen to him at their homes. The may put questions and answers are sent to them Via email.


Now a day’s computer applications is being widely used in business and industry. Computer information systems are used to keep track huge transactions. They are also allow transactions to be made from anywhere in the world. These are also used to control machines which manufacture product, keep track the customer’s bills, analysis sale to various product in different localities on monthly and yearly basis; calculating and recording employ to pays and performs various other tasks. These are also widely used in business communities to reduce the administrative paperwork and cost.

Online banking

Online Banking is one of the top applications of computer.The advent of the internet and the popularity of personal computers are presented an opportunity for banking industry. For years, banking institutions have used to powerful computers to perform million of transitions.  Nowadays, ATMs are installed everywhere; these are all computerised and connected together. These can be used to draw money from any branch of that any bankat any time of the day.  Bank Customers are now also connected to the bank via personal computers and Internet also called online or internet banking, which allows them to see their bank account status at home.

Bank view computerised banking as a powerful tool to attack and retain new customers while eliminating costly paper hadling to increasing competitive banking environment. Following are some of advantage of online banking:

Convenience: computerised online banking sites never close; they’re available 24 hours, seven days a week and they can be accessed from a computer.

Ubiquity: if you’re not out of the county and money problem arises, you can log on instantly to your online bank and make appropriate transactions.

Transaction speed: online bank sites generally execute and confirm transactions as quicker processing speed.

Efficiency: you can easily access and manage all of your bank accounts, from one site from one computer, mobile or tablet etc

Computer Simulation

Computer simulation is the use of computer represents the dynamic responses of one system by the change in behaviors of another system modeled after it. The one of the Applications of Computer simulations are widely used in educational institutes to make clear the understanding of the working of various system e.g. simulation of aeroplane is a part of training if the pilot. It makes him/her clear the working of various part of aeroplane. Simulation of river system should be manipulated to check the potential effects of dams, and irrigation network before any real construction has taken place.

In educational institutes, simulation also have advantages over hands on laboratory work such as allowing students to do more complicated and hazardous experiments, obtain results more quickly, and get a deeper understanding of the experiment. Simulation can be include simple graphical or numerical representations of how chemical or physical experiments are carried out.

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Classification of Computer | Describe in detail

Classification of computer

Computer comes in many different sizes and ranges of power and different types of computer system have varying capabilities today computer system are classified the following categories

  • super computer
  • mainframe computer
  • mini computer
  • micro computer

Super computer

Super Computers are one of the classification of computer the most powerful and high electricity consuming computer made, and physically they are some of the largest. These systems are built to process huge amount of data and the fastest supercomputer can perform more than 1 trillion calculations per second. Some supercomputer such as cray T90 system can house thousand of processors.

This speed and power make supercomputers ideal fir handling large and highly complex problems that require extreme calculating power e.g. these computer help analyse and forecast global weather patterns, nuclear scientists use these computers to perform complex calculation etc.

supercomputer can cost tens of millions of dollars and cents consume enough electricity to power dozen of homes because of their size and cost super computer are relatively rare used only by large corporation universities and government agencies that can affords them

Mainframe computers

The largest type of computer in common use is mainframe. Mainframe computers are used in large organization like insurance companies and bank where many people need frequent access to the same data which is usually organized into one or more huge data base.

Airlines use large mainframe systems for the flight scheduling reservation ticketing and meeting a range of customer service needs in traditional mainframe environment each user works at a computer terminal. A terminal is a monitor and a keyboard connected to a mainframe.

These computer are larger in size expensive can store huge amount of data( billion of records) and can support thousand of terminals these computer are basically used in networked environment as a single user can not utilize their full processing power. IBM s/390 is an example of mainframe computer

Mini Computer

Mini Computer is last in Classification of computer. They got their name because of their small size. These computers have less processing power than mainframe computer but have high processing power than microcomputer. Like mainframe, minicomputer are used in networked environment as server machine.

These computer are less expensive than mainframe computer and are ideal for organization that could afford mainframe or do not need the processing power of mainframe computer the HP 3000 are example of mini computer

Micro Computers

Micro computer also refer to personal preference computer are typical develop for individual users. These are less powerful machine as compare to minicomputer in 1981 IBM it first microcomputer the IBM-PC. Within a few years many other  manufacture copied the architecture and IBM compatible computers emerge in market

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What are Types of Computer? | Introduction to Computer

In this Article we will discuss about introduction of computer and types of computer. Today, you can find Computer almost everywhere. Microwave ovens, Automobiles, thermostats and even wristwatches contain computer chips. In fact, Computer are so common in modern society that everyone is affected by Computer technology to some extent.

Introduction to Computer

A computer is an electronic device that processes data and convert it into information. Computers run programs, which processes data and perform tasks based on the instructions contained in the programs. Because a computer program can evaluate data and then based on those evolution, results are generated which can be used a large number of applications. Computer can process data with little assistance. Some examples for computer applications are:

  • Controlling space fight
  • Landing airplanes
  • Tracking inventory
  • Painting books
  • Turning on lights at a specified time
  • Checking out groceries at the checkout counter

In this article, we will explore the history of computer and define the difference type of computer available today. Also, the impact of computer on society will be discussed along with the introduction to programming languages.

What are the types of computers?

There are three types of computer

  • Analog Computer
  • Digital Computer
  • Hybrid Computer

 Analog computer

Analog computer use electronic or mechanical phenomena to model the problem being solved by using one kind of physical quantity to represent another.

The Analog computer excels is solving dynamic problems and simulating complex physical systems. It has no way for man-machine interaction, recording and graphic display. High-speed computing elements, used to simulated mathematical functions, physical systems, and dynamic processes, are arranged in as much the same pattern as the physical system they represent.Early special-purpose Analog computer were the slide rule, the curve meter and plain meter, and the harmonic analyzer. In World War ¡¡, Analog computing mechanisms were of the great importance for gunfire control on warships. General-purpose Analog computers were first built in 1930s.

Digital computer

Digital computer process data in numerical from using digital circuits. The digital computers perform logic operations and arithmetic with discrete values. Digital computers are specially design for solving algebraic expression and even better at manipulating numbers. Digital Computers are unbeatable for high speed reliable results in arithmetic operations, data storage and documentation. It can tables perform only one calculation at the time.

The result can be obtained in a variety of forms, such as painted tables magnetic tape, and the familiar purchased cards. While properly used in high-accuracy, high-volumes numerical calculations, the digital computers are extremely good.

In early 1940s, Aiken built the first general-purpose digital computer is called

MARK-1, with the invention of digital computers, a new age of computing started . Today digital computer are widely being used in business, educational institutes, hospitals etc. for various purposes. Examples of digital computers are IBM  PC, Apple’s Macintosh computer etc.

Hybrid Computer

Hybrid Computer are the combination of Analog and digital computers. Hybrid Computer use analogue-to-digital conversion

and digital-to-analogue conversion, and May input and output either Analog and digital data. Dynamic problems that once took too long or were too difficult to handle can be solved in a reasonable period of the time. Hybrid Computers can create high accurate and reliable results. These type on computers are used in robotics, medical labs etc.

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Explain the Concept of Databases:

A database is a collection of logically related data sets of files. Normally, these files/data sets are of different nature, used for specific purposes. These may be organized in various ways to meet various processing and retrieval requirements of the organization or users For Example;

                A bank may have separate files for its clients i.e.

  • Savings A/C
  • Automobile loan
  • Personal Loan
  • Clients biographic information etc

The bank clients or customers database would include records from each of these files. Using a series of programs, data for any client may be added , retrieved or updated depending upon the activity at a particular time. It is a computerized system whose overall purpose is to maintain information and to make that information available at any time. A database system is just a computerized and fast record keeping system. A database itself can be regarded as a kind of electronic file cabinet, a warehouse or a repository for a collection of computerized data files. The user of the database normally has the following facilities to enjoy

  • Adding new, blank files to the database
  • Inserting new data into the existing files
  • Retrieving data from existing files
  • Updating data in existing files
  • Deleting data from existing files
  • Removing existing files, empty or otherwise from database

Objectives of Databases

There are at least three main objectives of databases in basic level for using the database organization

Data Integration:

                In database, information is coordinated from different files and operated on a single file. Logically, the information is centralized, physically data may be located on different devices i.e. scattered around over on different locations, connected through data communication links.

Data Integrity:

                If a data is contained in more than on file is changed then all files must be updated if that item is changed. In a database, only one copy of data is kept, therefore, the data is more consistent

Data Independency:

 Conventionally, if the format of a file is changed then all the programs have to be changed. However, a data base allows the organization of data to be changed without the need to re-program. It allows programs to be modified without re-organization of data.

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