Bachelor Level

High Level vs Low Level Programming Languages

Computer Languages are used to write computer programs. There are two board categories of programming languages i.e. Low level and high level languages. We will discuss briefly High Level vs Low Level Programming Languages in this article.

1. Low Level Languages:

Low level languages are divided into two broad languages i.e. machine and assembly language.

Machine Low Level Language:

 Machine Language is the native language of the computer. The computer does not need any translator to understand this language. Programs written in any other language must be converted to the machine language instruction consists of strings of binary 0’s and 1’s. As it is very difficult for human beings to remember long sequences, therefore writing programs in machine language are very difficult and error prone. So it was thought to replace the long sequences of 0’s and 1’s in machine language with English like words. The idea provided by the basis for the development of the assembly language.

Assembly Low Level Language:

In assembly language, machine language instructions (long sequences of 0’s and 1’s) are replaced with English like words are also known as mnemonics. As assembler translator is use for the assembly language to convert the program into machine language.

2. High Level Languages:

Programming Languages whose instructions resemble the English language are called high level languages. Every high level language defines a set of rules for writing programs called syntax of the language. Every instruction in the high level language must confirm to its syntax. If there is a syntax error in the program, it is reported by the language translator. The program does not translate into machine language unless the error is removed.

Some common high level languages are C, Java, C++, FORTRAN, BASIC, and COBOL etc. we will discuss these languages details in other article here is the link of that article. Although each of these languages were designed for specific purpose; all are used to write variety of application software. Some of these languages such as C and C++ are used to write system software as well. Each of these languages has some advantages and disadvantages over the other e.g. FORTRAN has very powerful mathematical capabilities while the COBOL is ideal for writing business applications, C and C++ are very handy for writing system software while Java is equipped with strong network programming features.

Characteristics of High level Languages:

  • There are English like languages, hence are close to human languages and far from the machine languages and very easy to learn
  • Programs written in high level languages are easy to modify and debug and more readable
  • These languages let the programmers concentrate on problem being solved rather than human-machine interaction.
  • These describe well defined way of writing programs
  • These do not require a deep of understanding of the machine architecture
  • High level languages provide machine independence. It means programs written in a high level languages can be executes on many different types of computer with a little modification. For Example programs written in C can be executed on Intel processor as well as on Motorola processors.
adminHigh Level vs Low Level Programming Languages
read more

OSI Model Layers | Open Systems Interconnection

The open system interconnection OSI Model Layers began a reference model, but has since been implemented. It was created by international organisation for standardization OSI to provide a logical framework for how data communication processes should interact across networks. Standards were created for the computer industry allowing different networks to work together efficiently.

How many OSI Model Layers are?

There are 7 layers in the OSI Model. Each layer is responsible for a particular aspect of data communication. For example, one layer is may be responsible for establishing connections between devices, while another layer maybe responsible for error checking during transfer.

The layers of the OSI Model are divided into two groups: the super layer and lower layer. The uper layer focus on user application and how files are represented on the computers prior to transport. For the most part, network engineers are more concerned with the lower layer. It’s the lower layers that concentrate on how the communication across a network actually occurs.

Application OSI Model layer:

one of the important OSI model layers is Application Layer. Provide network services to user applications. It is responsible for exchanging information between programs running on the machine, such as an e-mail program, and other services running on a network such as a print server or another computer’s application.

Presentation OSI Model Layer:

Concerned with how data converted and formatting for data transfer, Examples of format conversion include ASCII text for documents and .gif and JPG for images. This layer performs code conversion data translation, compression and encryption.

Session model layer:

Determines how two devices establish, maintain and manage a connection – how they talk to each other. These connections are called sessions.

Transport layer OSI Layer:

 Responsible for  breaking the data into segments establishing an end-to-end logical connection between Machines, and providing for error handling.

Network layer:

Responsible for determining on the network determining the routes that information will take on its journey, and managing network traffic congestion. Data and this level is packaged into packets.

Data link layer:

Provide the link for how data, packaged into frame is communicates through hardware to be transported across a medium. It communicates with network cards, manages physical layer communications between connecting systems and handles error notification.

Visit our more articles for getting more knowledge

adminOSI Model Layers | Open Systems Interconnection
read more

Database Management System | Objectives, Advantages, Features

Normally the DBMS is used for large or medium sized organizations, having heterogeneous types of files used for the different purposes. In this mechanism, the data elements are so integrated, cross referenced and shared among them that the duplication of data is almost possible.

Definition of Database Management System:

The Database Management System a collection of programs which is used for storing and manipulating database is called database management System (DBMS). It is an improvement over the traditional file management system. It uses DBMS software which controls the overall structure of a database and access to the data itself.

Objective of Database Management System

There are many objectives of the Database Management System some are mentioned below:

  • Share ability: Different people and different processes must be able to use the same actual data virtually the same line.
  • Availability: Both the data and DBMS which delivers the data must be easily accessible to the user.
  • Resolvability: The ability of the DBMS to change in response to growing user needs and advancing technology.
  • DATABASE Integrity: Since data is shared among multiple users, adequate integrity control measure must be maintained.

Advantages of Database Management System:

Advantages of DBMS are given below:

Data Independence:

Application programs are not aware of the physical implementation of the data sets. The DBMS sits in between the application programs and the actual data sets that make up the database

Support Complex Data Relationship:

Fairly complex data structures can be designed which allow various ways to logically view or access the data. This complexity greatly enhances the ability of a designer to put data where it belongs and provide a path to that data whenever needed.

Data Security Features:

DBMS provide enhance security mechanism for access to data. Database security mechanisms typically go much further in add more extensive security features. If granted Read access to a file or table, the user may see each record in the file, and every data field it contains. Access intent of each application program can be specified explicitly. An application program’s view of data records may be controlled to the field level.

Database Backup and Recovery:

DBMS provide sophisticated backup recovery mechanism. Backup and Recovery capabilities often distinguish between true DBMS and a software package that only claims this facility. A DBMS has a logging or recording mechanism that captures information on changes to data within a database. In case of database recovery, a utility within the DBMS rebuilds it by using a backup copy of the data and log of changes as input.

Advance Capabilities:

DBMS normally have advance access capability for online and ad-hic reporting capabilities. However, the ability to provide data independence to create complex data structures, to ptovide security to data access, and to provide backup and recovery capability are the primary requirements of a DataBase Managements.

Features of Database Management System

Data Dictionary:

Some database have a data dictionary, a procedures a document or disk file that stores the data definitions or a description of the structure of data used in the database. The data dictionary may monitor the data being entered to make sure it confirms to the data definition rules i.e. a file names, field names, field sizes, data types etc. It may be used for data access authorization for the database system.

Query Languages:

Normally SQL is used for creating table structures, entering data into them and retrieving/updating the selected records, based on the particular criteria and format indicated, within the databases. Typically, the query is in the form of sentence or English like commands such as SELECT, DELETE, INSERT and UPDATE commands.

Utilities in DBMS:

The DBMS utilities are the software programs that are used to maintain the database by manipulating the data, records and files. Some programs are also used for backup and recovery procedures of the database.

Thank you for read this article hope It will beneficial for you for more you articles you can check out

adminDatabase Management System | Objectives, Advantages, Features
read more

Concept of DATABASES AND EXPLAIN OBJECTIVES OF DATABASES

Explain the Concept of Databases:

A database is a collection of logically related data sets of files. Normally, these files/data sets are of different nature, used for specific purposes. These may be organized in various ways to meet various processing and retrieval requirements of the organization or users For Example;

                A bank may have separate files for its clients i.e.

  • Savings A/C
  • Automobile loan
  • Personal Loan
  • Clients biographic information etc

The bank clients or customers database would include records from each of these files. Using a series of programs, data for any client may be added , retrieved or updated depending upon the activity at a particular time. It is a computerized system whose overall purpose is to maintain information and to make that information available at any time. A database system is just a computerized and fast record keeping system. A database itself can be regarded as a kind of electronic file cabinet, a warehouse or a repository for a collection of computerized data files. The user of the database normally has the following facilities to enjoy

  • Adding new, blank files to the database
  • Inserting new data into the existing files
  • Retrieving data from existing files
  • Updating data in existing files
  • Deleting data from existing files
  • Removing existing files, empty or otherwise from database

Objectives of Databases

There are at least three main objectives of databases in basic level for using the database organization

Data Integration:

                In database, information is coordinated from different files and operated on a single file. Logically, the information is centralized, physically data may be located on different devices i.e. scattered around over on different locations, connected through data communication links.

Data Integrity:

                If a data is contained in more than on file is changed then all files must be updated if that item is changed. In a database, only one copy of data is kept, therefore, the data is more consistent

Data Independency:

 Conventionally, if the format of a file is changed then all the programs have to be changed. However, a data base allows the organization of data to be changed without the need to re-program. It allows programs to be modified without re-organization of data.

adminConcept of DATABASES AND EXPLAIN OBJECTIVES OF DATABASES
read more