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RAM and ROM concept | RAM and ROM Difference

RAM and ROM are the Main Storage Devices in computer, both storage devices are working as the work area of the computer. These devices are essential for the computer without these both devices computer will not able to work. One of the volatile and second is non volatile which one is volatile and which one is not computer science today will teach you everything about RAM and ROM in this article.

Difference between RAM and ROM:

As we read above RAM and ROM are the components of Main storage devices of the computer and both are essential for the computer so here we are going to tell you difference between RAM and ROM

1. RAM (Random Access Memory):

RAM is the primary storage device and the data and it stored the data or instruction temporarily and It takes the same amount of time to access any location in RAM. CPU can perform two types of operations on RAM and these are Read and Write.

During Read operation the contents of memory location are copied to CPU register whereas during Write operation the contents of a CPU register are copied to the memory location. The CPU cannot perform any other operations on memory locations. RAM is usually built by using two different technologies i.e.

  • DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory): DRAM is the most commonly used technology to build RAM chips and consumes a lot of power as data stored in a DRAM needs to be refreshed periodically.
  • SRAM (Static Random Access Memory): SRAM is faster than DRAM but it is more expensive. Unlike DRAM, the contents of SRAM do not need to bed refreshed periodically.

Characteristics of RAM (Random Access Memory):

  • RAM is volatile memory it’s mean that the content of memory are lost when the electricity supply is shut down
  • Since CPU can read data from and write data to the RAM therefore RAM is read/write memory
  • RAM is random access in the sense that any part of RAM can be accessed directly.

2. ROM (Read Only Memory):

As is obvious from the name the contents of ROM can be read but new data cannot be written into it so it is a Read Only Memory. The manufacturer of the ROM writes the data and programs permanently into it and this data and programs cannot be changed afterwards ROM is used to save frequently used instructions and data. The data stored in ROM will not change for a very long time. There are three types of ROM i.e.

  • PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory): This form of ROM is initially blank and the user can write his own data/programs on It by using special devices. Once the program/data is written on PROM it cannot be changed or altered. it is obvious that this kind of ROM will be used for storing the data for a very long period of time. The data written on this kind of ROM cannot be changed once it is written
  • EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory): Like PROM it is initially blank and programs and data can be written on it by the manufacturer or by the user with special devices. Unlike PROM a user can erase the data by using special devices and UV rays and then can write again, but the data is changed only for one time.
  • EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory): This kind of ROM can be re-written by using electrical devices and so data stored on EEPROM can be easily modified. EEPROM can be very useful for taking backup of data and for keeping records that are updated frequently
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Classification of Computer | Describe in detail

Classification of computer

Computer comes in many different sizes and ranges of power and different types of computer system have varying capabilities today computer system are classified the following categories

  • super computer
  • mainframe computer
  • mini computer
  • micro computer

Super computer

Super Computers are one of the classification of computer the most powerful and high electricity consuming computer made, and physically they are some of the largest. These systems are built to process huge amount of data and the fastest supercomputer can perform more than 1 trillion calculations per second. Some supercomputer such as cray T90 system can house thousand of processors.

This speed and power make supercomputers ideal fir handling large and highly complex problems that require extreme calculating power e.g. these computer help analyse and forecast global weather patterns, nuclear scientists use these computers to perform complex calculation etc.

supercomputer can cost tens of millions of dollars and cents consume enough electricity to power dozen of homes because of their size and cost super computer are relatively rare used only by large corporation universities and government agencies that can affords them

Mainframe computers

The largest type of computer in common use is mainframe. Mainframe computers are used in large organization like insurance companies and bank where many people need frequent access to the same data which is usually organized into one or more huge data base.

Airlines use large mainframe systems for the flight scheduling reservation ticketing and meeting a range of customer service needs in traditional mainframe environment each user works at a computer terminal. A terminal is a monitor and a keyboard connected to a mainframe.

These computer are larger in size expensive can store huge amount of data( billion of records) and can support thousand of terminals these computer are basically used in networked environment as a single user can not utilize their full processing power. IBM s/390 is an example of mainframe computer

Mini Computer

Mini Computer is last in Classification of computer. They got their name because of their small size. These computers have less processing power than mainframe computer but have high processing power than microcomputer. Like mainframe, minicomputer are used in networked environment as server machine.

These computer are less expensive than mainframe computer and are ideal for organization that could afford mainframe or do not need the processing power of mainframe computer the HP 3000 are example of mini computer

Micro Computers

Micro computer also refer to personal preference computer are typical develop for individual users. These are less powerful machine as compare to minicomputer in 1981 IBM it first microcomputer the IBM-PC. Within a few years many other  manufacture copied the architecture and IBM compatible computers emerge in market

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What are Types of Computer? | Introduction to Computer

In this Article we will discuss about introduction of computer and types of computer. Today, you can find Computer almost everywhere. Microwave ovens, Automobiles, thermostats and even wristwatches contain computer chips. In fact, Computer are so common in modern society that everyone is affected by Computer technology to some extent.

Introduction to Computer

A computer is an electronic device that processes data and convert it into information. Computers run programs, which processes data and perform tasks based on the instructions contained in the programs. Because a computer program can evaluate data and then based on those evolution, results are generated which can be used a large number of applications. Computer can process data with little assistance. Some examples for computer applications are:

  • Controlling space fight
  • Landing airplanes
  • Tracking inventory
  • Painting books
  • Turning on lights at a specified time
  • Checking out groceries at the checkout counter

In this article, we will explore the history of computer and define the difference type of computer available today. Also, the impact of computer on society will be discussed along with the introduction to programming languages.

What are the types of computers?

There are three types of computer

  • Analog Computer
  • Digital Computer
  • Hybrid Computer

 Analog computer

Analog computer use electronic or mechanical phenomena to model the problem being solved by using one kind of physical quantity to represent another.

The Analog computer excels is solving dynamic problems and simulating complex physical systems. It has no way for man-machine interaction, recording and graphic display. High-speed computing elements, used to simulated mathematical functions, physical systems, and dynamic processes, are arranged in as much the same pattern as the physical system they represent.Early special-purpose Analog computer were the slide rule, the curve meter and plain meter, and the harmonic analyzer. In World War ¡¡, Analog computing mechanisms were of the great importance for gunfire control on warships. General-purpose Analog computers were first built in 1930s.

Digital computer

Digital computer process data in numerical from using digital circuits. The digital computers perform logic operations and arithmetic with discrete values. Digital computers are specially design for solving algebraic expression and even better at manipulating numbers. Digital Computers are unbeatable for high speed reliable results in arithmetic operations, data storage and documentation. It can tables perform only one calculation at the time.

The result can be obtained in a variety of forms, such as painted tables magnetic tape, and the familiar purchased cards. While properly used in high-accuracy, high-volumes numerical calculations, the digital computers are extremely good.

In early 1940s, Aiken built the first general-purpose digital computer is called

MARK-1, with the invention of digital computers, a new age of computing started . Today digital computer are widely being used in business, educational institutes, hospitals etc. for various purposes. Examples of digital computers are IBM  PC, Apple’s Macintosh computer etc.

Hybrid Computer

Hybrid Computer are the combination of Analog and digital computers. Hybrid Computer use analogue-to-digital conversion

and digital-to-analogue conversion, and May input and output either Analog and digital data. Dynamic problems that once took too long or were too difficult to handle can be solved in a reasonable period of the time. Hybrid Computers can create high accurate and reliable results. These type on computers are used in robotics, medical labs etc.

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