Intermediate Level

Storage Devices in Computer | Types of Storage Devices

Computers are used to process large volumes of data and to execute very complex programs. The computer needs to have some kind of storage device to hold these programs and data. Such as device should be directly accessible to the CPU and its speed must be compatible with the speed of the CPU. Also computer must be able to store frequently needed data on some permanent storage devices in computer.

Types of Storage Devices in Computer:

. Based on the characteristics of the storage devices we classify these devices as Main Memory and Secondary Memory storage devices. In this article we will describe both types of storage devices in computer briefly.

1. Main Storage Devices:

Digital computers are stored programs computers that mean a program to be executed is first loaded in the memory storage devices in computer and then instructions are executed one by one. The data and results of the calculations are also stored in the memory. In this sense main memory is the working area of the computer. It is very fast but limited in capacity. A computer cannot work without main memory. Most general purpose computer have enough memory to store a few million characters.

The main memory of a computer consists of thousands or even million of cells. Each cell capable of storing a bit that is 0’s and 1’s.These cells are logically organized into groups of 8 bits is called byte. Each byte has unique address assigned to it. This number is called the address of that byte. These scheme of arranging cells into a byte and bytes into memory chip.

2. Secondary Storage Devices:

Primary storage devices are directly accessible to processor and are used to store data and programs that are in current time. The control unit does not have direct access to data that is stored anywhere outside the processor or main memory. However this storage is limited in size and volatile. We need some storage devices that is not temporary in nature and that does not have the same restriction of size as that of main memory. Such a device is called secondary storage devices in computer. Secondary storage devices are categorized according to following:

  • Data stored optically and magnetically
  • Sequential and direct storage access technique used
  • The capacity of the devices according how much we want it
  • Easily portable and easily remove or change

Secondary storage is required permanently stone information that is not needed in memory all of the time and which may be too large to fit into the memory of the computer. Two main categories based n the ways of accessing data from a secondary storage are sequential Access and Direct Access or Serial Access and Random Access respectively.

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High Level Languages | All famous Programmings

High Level Languages are very similar to human being languages and far from the machine language. There are machine independent languages which are also known as “This generation” languages. These languages are based English like words, a few punctuation characters and basic mathematical symbols. These languages allow simple commands and statements to manipulate problem. Each High Level Language has its own language translator such as compiler or Interpreter. Some famous High Level Languages are explained below:

FORTRAN Programming:

FORTRAN stands for Formula Translation. In 1975 the first major High Level Languages appeared in the form of FORTRAN.FORTRAN stands for Formula Translation. FORTRAM was developed by the IBM for scientific computing. It was mainly used for specific purposes

BASIC High Level Language:

BASIC is the old High Level Language and it is stands for Beginners All purpose symbolic Instruction Code. BASIC was actually designed for the students to write programs for programming practicing using time sharing computer terminals. BASIC was intended for easy learning programming concepts. There are some principles of BASIC Programming are given below:

  • Too much easy for beginners to use.
  • Be a general purpose language.
  • BASIC Allows advanced features to be a expert programmer
  • Attractive language
  • Providing clear and friendly error messages
  • Respond fast for small programs.
  • Not require and understanding of computer software

COBOL Language:

COBOL stands for Common Business Oriented Languages. Through FORTRAN was good at handling numbers, it was not so good at handling input and output, which mattered most to business computing. COBOL was designed as the language for businessman. The only data types of COBOL are numbers and strings of text. A COBOL program consists of four or five major sections. COBOL statements also have a very English Like grammar also called syntax, that making this very easy to learn and understand. Because of its simplicity it had been very popular among business community.

LISP Programming:

LIST stands for List Processing Language. It was designed for Artificial Intelligence (AI) research. Because it was designed for such as highly specialized field, its syntax was very different of ordinary languages. It has the unique ability to modify itself and hence grow on its own. It is being used even today because it is highly specialized.

PASCAL High Level Language:

PASCAL was designed to introduce some advance and best features and making flexible of the languages in use at the time, COBOL, FORTRAN and ALGOL. While doing so many of the irregularities of these languages were cleared up, this helped it to gain popularity. The newly introduced combination of features made it a reliable and highly successful Programming Language.

C and C++ Languages:

In 1972 C language was introduced by Dennis Ritchie while during working at Bell Labs. C is commonly used to program operating systems such as UNIX, windows and Macintosh OS etc. It is very useful for compiler writing. C+ was an extension to C language using OOP (Object Oriented Programming) concept, while maintaining the speed of C. C++ is the most often used in simulation, such as games. Now a days almost in every institute C or C++ language is compulsory subject.

Visual BASIC Language:

It was the first visual development tool from Microsoft, and it was designed to compete with C, C++, PASCAL and any other languages. When it came out Visual Basic wasn’t until Microsoft release VB 2.0 in 1993 that people really started to discover the power of the language, and when Microsoft released VB 3.0 it had become.

JAVA High Level Language:

One of the famous High Level Languages is JAVA. Sun Microsystems began developing a language with the primarily purpose to control microprocessors used in consumers items such as cable receivers, VCR’s toasters, and also for personal data assistants (PDA). JAVA often powerful capabilities of network programming, Internet applications and GUI (Graphical User Interface).

If you want to read about differentiate between High level languages and Low level languages click here

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Applications of Computer | Internet in society

There is numerous areas in which applications of computer has increased ease and efficiency of every work and computer have put a large impact. Many times the most important on our society is on information sharing.

Application of Computer and Impact of Internet on society

Computer plays very vital role in the society. Everywhere every time all over the world there are applications of computer as well as Internet is now the part of the world. Everybody in this world try to finding their solution on internet, Internet make the human’s life too much easy.

Here in this topic you will some computer applications and internet that are given below:


Educational institutes, from primary to university level, are using computer for various learning activities. A large number of learning programs (tutorials) are available on almost every subject. These provide a one-to-one interaction with the students. The conducting online examination is getting popular e.g. GRE, GMAT, SAT etc. are conducted online throughout the world. Questions are marked by the computer, which minimize the chance to committing mistakes. It also make it possible to announce result in Time.

Distance learning is a new methodology. Computer plays the magnificent role in this type of learning. Hundreds of institutes are offering to distance learning programs. The students are not required to come to the institute instead to they are provided reading material and attend classes Via virtual classroom. In a virtual classroom, teacher deliver the lecture at it own workplace While the students, connected to a network, may listen to him at their homes. The may put questions and answers are sent to them Via email.


Now a day’s computer applications is being widely used in business and industry. Computer information systems are used to keep track huge transactions. They are also allow transactions to be made from anywhere in the world. These are also used to control machines which manufacture product, keep track the customer’s bills, analysis sale to various product in different localities on monthly and yearly basis; calculating and recording employ to pays and performs various other tasks. These are also widely used in business communities to reduce the administrative paperwork and cost.

Online banking

Online Banking is one of the top applications of computer.The advent of the internet and the popularity of personal computers are presented an opportunity for banking industry. For years, banking institutions have used to powerful computers to perform million of transitions.  Nowadays, ATMs are installed everywhere; these are all computerised and connected together. These can be used to draw money from any branch of that any bankat any time of the day.  Bank Customers are now also connected to the bank via personal computers and Internet also called online or internet banking, which allows them to see their bank account status at home.

Bank view computerised banking as a powerful tool to attack and retain new customers while eliminating costly paper hadling to increasing competitive banking environment. Following are some of advantage of online banking:

Convenience: computerised online banking sites never close; they’re available 24 hours, seven days a week and they can be accessed from a computer.

Ubiquity: if you’re not out of the county and money problem arises, you can log on instantly to your online bank and make appropriate transactions.

Transaction speed: online bank sites generally execute and confirm transactions as quicker processing speed.

Efficiency: you can easily access and manage all of your bank accounts, from one site from one computer, mobile or tablet etc

Computer Simulation

Computer simulation is the use of computer represents the dynamic responses of one system by the change in behaviors of another system modeled after it. The one of the Applications of Computer simulations are widely used in educational institutes to make clear the understanding of the working of various system e.g. simulation of aeroplane is a part of training if the pilot. It makes him/her clear the working of various part of aeroplane. Simulation of river system should be manipulated to check the potential effects of dams, and irrigation network before any real construction has taken place.

In educational institutes, simulation also have advantages over hands on laboratory work such as allowing students to do more complicated and hazardous experiments, obtain results more quickly, and get a deeper understanding of the experiment. Simulation can be include simple graphical or numerical representations of how chemical or physical experiments are carried out.

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Traditional File System Explanation in Computer Science

Describe Traditional File System in Computer Science
Briefly describe the traditional file system

About Traditional File system

In this article you will clearly understand the knowledge of traditional file system. Here we thoroughly describe traditional file system before going in deep we discuss about Records system and File System in this article

What is Record?

A collection of related fields treated as a single unit is called a record. Let us assume a employee’s biographic information in a bank

What is File?

A collection of related records as a single unit is called a file or a set of data. If we collect records of all employees, it becomes a file (or bio information) of all the employess of bank

Types of File:

File are categorized according to different criteria as discussed below

Usage point of view files:

First we discussed about master files, These are the latest update file which never become empty, ever since they are created. They maintain information that remains constant over a long period of time. Whenever the information changes in files or records, it is updated. Methods of updating are adding, deleting or editing records in a file. The next file is Transaction file, These are those files in which data prior to the stage of processing is recorded. It may be temporary file, retained till the master file is updated. It may also be used to maintain a permanent record of transaction data. Backup Files, These are again permanent files and their purpose is the protection of vital files or data of an organization by creating them using some specific software utilities

Functional Point of View Files:

For this purpose, the files are given appropriate names, consisting of two parts I.e.  file name and file extension, having dot “.” in between. Normally the extension is given by the software being used at the time of initial save. These file are summarized as under Program files, these contain the software instruction i.e. source program files and executable files. This source program files may have the extension as .com and the executable files as .exe. Data files, These are the files that contain data and are created by the software being used.

Storage Point of View Files:

First we Discuss Sequential Files, As the name refer these files are stored or created on the storage media in the order the record are entered i.e. one after another in the sequence. They require comparatively more processing time. Direct or Random Files, These files reside on the storage media according to the address which is calculated against the value of the key field of the record. Sometimes the same address is calculated, which leads to the concept of synonyms. In last Indexed Sequential Files, The key field of the records (in a file) is stored separately along with the address of each record. These files can be processed sequentially as well as randomly. They require relatively more space on the storage media but the processing is as fast as random or direct files.

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